MBBS, MS(General Surgery), DNB(Genitourinary Surgery) Mumbai, MNAMS (New Delhi)
Currently practising as a senior consultant urologist at Bombay Hospital Indore
A kidney stone is a hard, crystalline mineral material formed within the kidney or urinary tract from minerals in the urine. Kidney stone is also known as renal calculus or nephroliths.
Urine, which is produced in the kidneys, naturally contains substances that promote the development of crystals. These stone promoters include calcium, oxalate, sodium, phosphorus and uric acid (and also cystine, in the case of individuals with the inherited disorder known as cystinuria).
These stone-promoting compounds, which come from the bloodstream, are present in urine because the kidneys filter our blood and regulate whether and how much of these urinary constituents will be reabsorbed by the kidneys (put back into blood circulation) or eliminated as waste.
In addition to these, urine also naturally contains proteins and other compounds that inhibit crystal formation. Examples of stone inhibitors in urine include total urine volume (the more urine produced, the less concentrated it is and less likely to become supersaturated), citrate, magnesium, pyrophosphate, phytate and proteins and other molecules derived from normal metabolism, collectively referred to as urinary macromolecules. These inhibitors aid the elimination of crystals before they attach to the kidney and grow into larger stones.
In order for tiny crystals to grow into larger stones, the urine must first become supersaturated, either due to:
Under normal circumstances, there is a balance of urinary stone makers and inhibitors, leading to the painless elimination from the kidney of tiny crystals.
Thus, if the crystals remain small enough, and if the urine is dilute enough to avoid supersaturation, crystals will flow with urine through the ureters and bladder without being noticed or causing problems. However, this balance between stone promoters and inhibitors does not exist for everyone - either due to genetic, lifestyle or other factors leading to the formation of kidney stones.
Kidney stone treatment is possible by various methods. These include surgical kidney stone treatment, non-surgical kidney stone treatment, kidney stone treatment and removal by laser and Medication.
Most kidney stones are calcium stones, usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a naturally occurring substance found in food. Some fruits and vegetables, as well as nuts and chocolate, have high oxalate levels.
Struvite stones form in response to an infection, such as a urinary tract infection. These stones can grow quickly and become quite large, sometimes with few symptoms or little warning
Uric acid stones can form in people who don't drink enough fluids or who lose too much fluid, those who eat a high-protein diet, and those who have gout. Certain genetic factors also may increase your risk of uric acid stones
These stones form in people with a hereditary disorder that causes the kidneys to excrete too much of certain amino acids (cystinuria)
Follow these links to know more about Kidney Stone and Treatment options
There may be one or more causes of kidney stones at the same time. Symptoms may vary according to the type of stones.
Treatment of Kidney Stones may include medication, surgeries or non surgical procedures.
Surgeries for kidney stone removal may include Cystoscopy, DJ stenting, TURP/TUIP, TURBT, PCNL, RIRS, Cystolithotrity, ESWL(External shock wave lithotripsy) and Intravesical Botox
For immediate help on Kidney Stone pain and treatment, contact Dr.Pritesh Shrimali, Senior consultant Urologist at Bombay Hospital Indore
For any urological problems please feel free to contact